NTC Thermometer: ADC of ATmega48

sun_ge@yahoo.cn

Project Origin

In order to get current temperature, the cheapest way is using a ATmega48, which has 10-bits ADC unit, and a NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) resistor. It's as accurate as a temperature sensor like LM35, with lower cost.

The following picture shows the temperature measured by LM35 ( $ 23.8^\circ C$) and temperature measured by NTC ( $ 23.4^\circ C$) at same time. Image adc-cmp

Hardware


hardware connection:

     VCC -->0.1uF--> GND

     mega48:
     27(ADC4)<--V_in
     22(GND)-->GND
     21(AREF)-->0.1uF(104)-->GND
     20(AVCC)-->VCC

     NTC connection:
     VCC(from stk500, 5.0V) -->/\/\/\/(R1=5.6K)--->NTC-->GND
                                                |
                                                |
                                                V
                                  V_in(to ADC pin of mega48)


For more information about NTC(Negative Temperature Coefficient) resistor,
i.e. how to calculate  the temperature from resistant value,
see ntc-adc.c for details.

Source Code

Source contains: lcd.h, lcd.c, ntc-adc.c and Makefile.
It can be compiled and installed by AVR GNU Tools Chain.

LCD Library Header: lcd.h


#ifndef LCD_H
#define LCD_H
/*************************************************************************
 Title	:   C include file for the HD44780U LCD library (lcd.c)
 Author:    Peter Fleury <pfleury@gmx.ch>  http://jump.to/fleury
 File:	    $Id: lcd.h,v 1.12.2.2 2004/02/12 21:05:59 peter Exp $
 Software:  AVR-GCC 3.3
 Hardware:  any AVR device, memory mapped mode only for AT90S4414/8515/Mega
***************************************************************************/
// extended by Martin Thomas 3/2004, removed bugs(?), added functions
// and maybe added new bugs

/**
 @defgroup pfleury_lcd LCD library
 @code #include <lcd.h> @endcode
 
 @brief Basic routines for interfacing a HD44780U-based text LCD display

 Originally based on Volker Oth's LCD library,
 changed lcd_init(), added additional constants for lcd_command(), 
 added 4-bit I/O mode, improved and optimized code.
       
 Library can be operated in memory mapped mode (LCD_IO_MODE=0) or in 
 4-bit IO port mode (LCD_IO_MODE=1). 8-bit IO port mode not supported.

 Memory mapped mode compatible with Kanda STK200, but supports also 
 generation of R/W signal through A8 address line.
       
 @author Peter Fleury pfleury@gmx.ch http://jump.to/fleury
 
 @see The chapter <a href="http://homepage.sunrise.ch/mysunrise/pfleury/avr-lcd44780.html" target="_blank">Interfacing a HD44780 Based LCD to an AVR</a>
      on my home page.

*/

/*@{*/

#if (__GNUC__ * 100 + __GNUC_MINOR__) < 303
#error "This library requires AVR-GCC 3.3 or later, update to newer AVR-GCC compiler !"
#endif
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>

/** 
 *  @name  Definitions for MCU Clock Frequency
 *  Adapt the MCU clock frequency in Hz to your target. 
 */
//#define XTAL 4000000              /**< clock frequency in Hz, used to calculate delay timer */
// mtmt:

// note: 2006.01.03
// If this XTAL setting is not equal to the real frequency,(i.e.:real=1MHz),
// it can also works fine.
#define XTAL 8000000              /**< clock frequency in Hz, used to calculate delay timer */

/** 
 *  @name  Definitions for Display Size 
 *  Change these definitions to adapt setting to your display
 */
#define LCD_LINES           2     /**< number of visible lines of the display */
#define LCD_DISP_LENGTH    16     /**< visibles characters per line of the display */
#define LCD_LINE_LENGTH  0x10     /**< internal line length of the display    */

// mtmt for reichelt 16*4 Dispaytech 164A
#define LCD_START_LINE1  0x00     /**< DDRAM address of first char of line 1 */
#define LCD_START_LINE2  0x40     /**< DDRAM address of first char of line 2 */
#define LCD_START_LINE3  0x10     /**< DDRAM address of first char of line 3 */
#define LCD_START_LINE4  0x50     /**< DDRAM address of first char of line 4 */

#define LCD_WRAP_LINES      1     /**< 0: no wrap, 1: wrap at end of visibile line */

// mtmt Scroll and autoscroll added 
#define LCD_SCROLL_FUNCTION 1     /**< include scroll-up function */
#define LCD_AUTO_SCROLL 1         /**< auto-scroll on fullscreen only in combination with LCD_SCROLL_FUNCTION  */

#define LCD_IO_MODE      1         /**< 0: memory mapped mode, 1: IO port mode */
#if LCD_IO_MODE
/**
 *  @name Definitions for 4-bit IO mode
 *  Change LCD_PORT if you want to use a different port for the LCD pins.
 *
 *  The four LCD data lines and the three control lines RS, RW, E can be on the 
 *  same port or on different ports. 
 *  Change LCD_RS_PORT, LCD_RW_PORT, LCD_E_PORT if you want the control lines on
 *  different ports. 
 *
 *  Normally the four data lines should be mapped to bit 0..3 on one port, but it
 *  is possible to connect these data lines in different order or even on different
 *  ports by adapting the LCD_DATAx_PORT and LCD_DATAx_PIN definitions.
 *  
 */
 // mtmt changed to test-hardware
#define LCD_PORT         PORTC        /**< port for the LCD lines   */
#define LCD_DATA0_PORT   LCD_PORT     /**< port for 4bit data bit 0 */
#define LCD_DATA1_PORT   LCD_PORT     /**< port for 4bit data bit 1 */
#define LCD_DATA2_PORT   LCD_PORT     /**< port for 4bit data bit 2 */
#define LCD_DATA3_PORT   LCD_PORT     /**< port for 4bit data bit 3 */
#define LCD_DATA0_PIN    0            /**< pin for 4bit data bit 0  */
#define LCD_DATA1_PIN    1            /**< pin for 4bit data bit 1  */
#define LCD_DATA2_PIN    2            /**< pin for 4bit data bit 2  */
#define LCD_DATA3_PIN    3            /**< pin for 4bit data bit 3  */
#define LCD_RS_PORT      PORTB     /**< port for RS line         */
#define LCD_RS_PIN       0            /**< pin  for RS line         */
#define LCD_RW_PORT      PORTD     /**< port for RW line         */
#define LCD_RW_PIN       6            /**< pin  for RW line         */
#define LCD_E_PORT       PORTD     /**< port for Enable line     */
#define LCD_E_PIN        7            /**< pin  for Enable line     */

#elif defined(__AVR_AT90S4414__) || defined(__AVR_AT90S8515__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega64__) || \
      defined(__AVR_ATmega8515__)|| defined(__AVR_ATmega103__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega128__) || \
      defined(__AVR_ATmega161__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega162__)
/*
 *  memory mapped mode is only supported when the device has an external data memory interface
 */
#define LCD_IO_DATA      0xC000    /* A15=E=1, A14=RS=1                 */
#define LCD_IO_FUNCTION  0x8000    /* A15=E=1, A14=RS=0                 */
#define LCD_IO_READ      0x0100    /* A8 =R/W=1 (R/W: 1=Read, 0=Write   */
#else
#error "external data memory interface not available for this device, use 4-bit IO port mode"

#endif


/**
 *  @name Definitions for LCD command instructions
 *  The constants define the various LCD controller instructions which can be passed to the 
 *  function lcd_command(), see HD44780 data sheet for a complete description.
 */

/* instruction register bit positions, see HD44780U data sheet */
#define LCD_CLR               0      /* DB0: clear display                  */
#define LCD_HOME              1      /* DB1: return to home position        */
#define LCD_ENTRY_MODE        2      /* DB2: set entry mode                 */
#define LCD_ENTRY_INC         1      /*   DB1: 1=increment, 0=decrement     */
#define LCD_ENTRY_SHIFT       0      /*   DB2: 1=display shift on           */
#define LCD_ON                3      /* DB3: turn lcd/cursor on             */
#define LCD_ON_DISPLAY        2      /*   DB2: turn display on              */
#define LCD_ON_CURSOR         1      /*   DB1: turn cursor on               */
#define LCD_ON_BLINK          0      /*     DB0: blinking cursor ?          */
#define LCD_MOVE              4      /* DB4: move cursor/display            */
#define LCD_MOVE_DISP         3      /*   DB3: move display (0-> cursor) ?  */
#define LCD_MOVE_RIGHT        2      /*   DB2: move right (0-> left) ?      */
#define LCD_FUNCTION          5      /* DB5: function set                   */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT     4      /*   DB4: set 8BIT mode (0->4BIT mode) */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_2LINES   3      /*   DB3: two lines (0->one line)      */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_10DOTS   2      /*   DB2: 5x10 font (0->5x7 font)      */
#define LCD_CGRAM             6      /* DB6: set CG RAM address             */
#define LCD_DDRAM             7      /* DB7: set DD RAM address             */
#define LCD_BUSY              7      /* DB7: LCD is busy                    */

/* set entry mode: display shift on/off, dec/inc cursor move direction */
#define LCD_ENTRY_DEC            0x04   /* display shift off, dec cursor move dir */
#define LCD_ENTRY_DEC_SHIFT      0x05   /* display shift on,  dec cursor move dir */
#define LCD_ENTRY_INC_           0x06   /* display shift off, inc cursor move dir */
#define LCD_ENTRY_INC_SHIFT      0x07   /* display shift on,  inc cursor move dir */

/* display on/off, cursor on/off, blinking char at cursor position */
#define LCD_DISP_OFF             0x08   /* display off                            */
#define LCD_DISP_ON              0x0C   /* display on, cursor off                 */
#define LCD_DISP_ON_BLINK        0x0D   /* display on, cursor off, blink char     */
#define LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR       0x0E   /* display on, cursor on                  */
#define LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR_BLINK 0x0F   /* display on, cursor on, blink char      */

/* move cursor/shift display */
#define LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT     0x10   /* move cursor left  (decrement)          */
#define LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT    0x14   /* move cursor right (increment)          */
#define LCD_MOVE_DISP_LEFT       0x18   /* shift display left                     */
#define LCD_MOVE_DISP_RIGHT      0x1C   /* shift display right                    */

/* function set: set interface data length and number of display lines */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_1LINE  0x20   /* 4-bit interface, single line, 5x7 dots */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_2LINES 0x28   /* 4-bit interface, dual line,   5x7 dots */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE  0x30   /* 8-bit interface, single line, 5x7 dots */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_2LINES 0x38   /* 8-bit interface, dual line,   5x7 dots */


#define LCD_MODE_DEFAULT     ((1<<LCD_ENTRY_MODE) | (1<<LCD_ENTRY_INC) )



/** 
 *  @name Functions
 */


/**
 @brief    Initialize display and select type of cursor
 @param    dispAttr \b LCD_DISP_OFF display off\n
                    \b LCD_DISP_ON display on, cursor off\n
                    \b LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR display on, cursor on\n
                    \b LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR_BLINK display on, cursor on flashing             
 @return  none
*/
extern void lcd_init(uint8_t dispAttr);


/**
 @brief    Clear display and set cursor to home position
 @param    void                                        
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_clrscr(void);


/**
 @brief    Set cursor to home position
 @param    void                                        
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_home(void);


/**
 @brief    Set cursor to specified position
 
 @param    x horizontal position\n (0: left most position)
 @param    y vertical position\n   (0: first line)
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_gotoxy(uint8_t x, uint8_t y);


/**
 @brief    Display character at current cursor position
 @param    c character to be displayed                                       
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_putc(char c);


/**
 @brief    Display string without auto linefeed
 @param    s string to be displayed                                        
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_puts(const char *s);


/**
 @brief    Display string from program memory without auto linefeed
 @param    s string from program memory be be displayed                                        
 @return   none
 @see      lcd_puts_P
*/
extern void lcd_puts_p(const char *progmem_s);


/**
 @brief    Send LCD controller instruction command
 @param    cmd instruction to send to LCD controller, see HD44780 data sheet
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_command(uint8_t cmd);

// mtmt new function:
#ifdef LCD_SCROLL_FUNCTION
/**
 @brief    Scroll LCD up
 @param    none
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_scrollup(void);
#endif

// mtmt exported for debugging
extern uint8_t lcd_waitbusy(void);

/**
 @brief macros for automatically storing string constant in program memory
*/
#define lcd_puts_P(__s)         lcd_puts_p(PSTR(__s))


/*@}*/
#endif //LCD_H

LCD Library: lcd.c


/****************************************************************************
 Title	:   HD44780U LCD library
 Author:    Peter Fleury <pfleury@gmx.ch>  http://jump.to/fleury
 File:	    $Id: lcd.c,v 1.13.2.2 2004/02/12 21:08:25 peter Exp $
 Software:  AVR-GCC 3.3 
 Target:    any AVR device, memory mapped mode only for AT90S4414/8515/Mega

 DESCRIPTION
       Basic routines for interfacing a HD44780U-based text lcd display

       Originally based on Volker Oth's lcd library,
       changed lcd_init(), added additional constants for lcd_command(),
       added 4-bit I/O mode, improved and optimized code.

       Library can be operated in memory mapped mode (LCD_IO_MODE=0) or in 
       4-bit IO port mode (LCD_IO_MODE=1). 8-bit IO port mode not supported.
       
       Memory mapped mode compatible with Kanda STK200, but supports also
       generation of R/W signal through A8 address line.

 USAGE
       See the C include lcd.h file for a description of each function
       
*****************************************************************************/

// extended by Martin Thomas 3/2004, removed bugs(?), added functions
// and maybe added new bugs
// 6/2005 - update to be compatible with avr-libc 1.2.3, mth

#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#include "lcd.h"



/* 
** constants/macros 
*/
#define PIN(x) (*(&x - 2))  /* address of data direction register of port x */
#define DDR(x) (*(&x - 1))  /* address of input register of port x          */


#if LCD_IO_MODE
#define lcd_e_delay()   __asm__ __volatile__( "rjmp 1f\n 1:" );
#define lcd_e_high()    LCD_E_PORT  |=  _BV(LCD_E_PIN);
#define lcd_e_low()     LCD_E_PORT  &= ~_BV(LCD_E_PIN);
#define lcd_e_toggle()  toggle_e()
#define lcd_rw_high()   LCD_RW_PORT |=  _BV(LCD_RW_PIN)
#define lcd_rw_low()    LCD_RW_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_RW_PIN)
#define lcd_rs_high()   LCD_RS_PORT |=  _BV(LCD_RS_PIN)
#define lcd_rs_low()    LCD_RS_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_RS_PIN)
#endif

#if LCD_IO_MODE
#if LCD_LINES==1
#define LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT    LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_1LINE 
#else
#define LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT    LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_2LINES 
#endif
#else
#if LCD_LINES==1
#define LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT    LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE
#else
#define LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT    LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_2LINES
#endif
#endif


/* 
** function prototypes 
*/
#if LCD_IO_MODE
static void toggle_e(void);
#endif

/*
** local functions
*/



/*************************************************************************
 delay loop for small accurate delays: 16-bit counter, 4 cycles/loop
*************************************************************************/
static inline void _delayFourCycles(unsigned int __count)
{
    if ( __count == 0 )    
        __asm__ __volatile__( "rjmp 1f\n 1:" );    // 2 cycles
    else
        __asm__ __volatile__ (
    	    "1: sbiw %0,1" "\n\t"                  
    	    "brne 1b"                              // 4 cycles/loop
    	    : "=w" (__count)
    	    : "0" (__count)
    	   );
}


/************************************************************************* 
delay for a minimum of <us> microseconds
the number of loops is calculated at compile-time from MCU clock frequency
*************************************************************************/
#define delay(us)  _delayFourCycles( ( ( 1*(XTAL/4000) )*us)/1000 )


#if LCD_IO_MODE
/* toggle Enable Pin to initiate write */
static void toggle_e(void)
{
    lcd_e_high();
    lcd_e_delay();
    lcd_e_low();
}
#endif


/*************************************************************************
Low-level function to write byte to LCD controller
Input:    data   byte to write to LCD
          rs     1: write data    
                 0: write instruction
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
#if LCD_IO_MODE
static void lcd_write(uint8_t data,uint8_t rs) 
{
    unsigned char dataBits ;


    if (rs) {   /* write data        (RS=1, RW=0) */
       lcd_rs_high();
    } else {    /* write instruction (RS=0, RW=0) */
       lcd_rs_low();
    }
    lcd_rw_low();

    if ( ( &LCD_DATA0_PORT == &LCD_DATA1_PORT) && ( &LCD_DATA1_PORT == &LCD_DATA2_PORT ) && ( &LCD_DATA2_PORT == &LCD_DATA3_PORT )
      && (LCD_DATA0_PIN == 0) && (LCD_DATA1_PIN == 1) && (LCD_DATA2_PIN == 2) && (LCD_DATA3_PIN == 3) )
    {
        /* configure data pins as output */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= 0x0F;

        /* output high nibble first */
        dataBits = LCD_DATA0_PORT & 0xF0;
        LCD_DATA0_PORT = dataBits |((data>>4)&0x0F);
        lcd_e_toggle();

        /* output low nibble */
        LCD_DATA0_PORT = dataBits | (data&0x0F);
        lcd_e_toggle();

        /* all data pins high (inactive) */
        LCD_DATA0_PORT = dataBits | 0x0F;
    }
    else
    {
        /* configure data pins as output */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA1_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA2_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA3_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
        
        /* output high nibble first */
        LCD_DATA3_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
        LCD_DATA2_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        LCD_DATA1_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        LCD_DATA0_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x80) LCD_DATA3_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x40) LCD_DATA2_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x20) LCD_DATA1_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x10) LCD_DATA0_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);   
        lcd_e_toggle();
        
        /* output low nibble */
        LCD_DATA3_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
        LCD_DATA2_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        LCD_DATA1_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        LCD_DATA0_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x08) LCD_DATA3_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x04) LCD_DATA2_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x02) LCD_DATA1_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x01) LCD_DATA0_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        lcd_e_toggle();        
        
        /* all data pins high (inactive) */
        LCD_DATA0_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        LCD_DATA1_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        LCD_DATA2_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        LCD_DATA3_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
    }
}
#else
#define lcd_write(d,rs) if (rs) *(volatile uint8_t*)(LCD_IO_DATA) = d; else *(volatile uint8_t*)(LCD_IO_FUNCTION) = d;
/* rs==0 -> write instruction to LCD_IO_FUNCTION */
/* rs==1 -> write data to LCD_IO_DATA */
#endif


/*************************************************************************
Low-level function to read byte from LCD controller
Input:    rs     1: read data    
                 0: read busy flag / address counter
Returns:  byte read from LCD controller
*************************************************************************/
#if LCD_IO_MODE
static uint8_t lcd_read(uint8_t rs) 
{
    uint8_t data;
    
    
    if (rs)
        lcd_rs_high();                       /* RS=1: read data      */
    else
        lcd_rs_low();                        /* RS=0: read busy flag */
    lcd_rw_high();                           /* RW=1  read mode      */
    
    if ( ( &LCD_DATA0_PORT == &LCD_DATA1_PORT) && ( &LCD_DATA1_PORT == &LCD_DATA2_PORT ) && ( &LCD_DATA2_PORT == &LCD_DATA3_PORT )
      && ( LCD_DATA0_PIN == 0 )&& (LCD_DATA1_PIN == 1) && (LCD_DATA2_PIN == 2) && (LCD_DATA3_PIN == 3) )
    {
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) &= 0xF0;         /* configure data pins as input */
        
        lcd_e_high();
        lcd_e_delay();        
        data = PIN(LCD_DATA0_PORT) << 4;     /* read high nibble first */
        lcd_e_low();
        
        lcd_e_delay();                       /* Enable 500ns low       */
        
        lcd_e_high();
        lcd_e_delay();
        data |= PIN(LCD_DATA0_PORT)&0x0F;    /* read low nibble        */
        lcd_e_low();
    }
    else
    {
        /* configure data pins as input */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA1_PORT) &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA2_PORT) &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA3_PORT) &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
                
        /* read high nibble first */
        lcd_e_high();
        lcd_e_delay();        
        data = 0;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA0_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN) ) data |= 0x10;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA1_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN) ) data |= 0x20;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA2_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN) ) data |= 0x40;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA3_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN) ) data |= 0x80;
        lcd_e_low();

        lcd_e_delay();                       /* Enable 500ns low       */
    
        /* read low nibble */    
        lcd_e_high();
        lcd_e_delay();
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA0_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN) ) data |= 0x01;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA1_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN) ) data |= 0x02;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA2_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN) ) data |= 0x04;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA3_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN) ) data |= 0x08;        
        lcd_e_low();
    }
    return data;
}
#else
#define lcd_read(rs) (rs) ? *(volatile uint8_t*)(LCD_IO_DATA+LCD_IO_READ) : *(volatile uint8_t*)(LCD_IO_FUNCTION+LCD_IO_READ)
/* rs==0 -> read instruction from LCD_IO_FUNCTION */
/* rs==1 -> read data from LCD_IO_DATA */
#endif


/*************************************************************************
loops while lcd is busy, returns address counter
*************************************************************************/
uint8_t lcd_waitbusy(void)

{
    register uint8_t c;
    
    /* wait until busy flag is cleared */
    while ( (c=lcd_read(0)) & (1<<LCD_BUSY)) {}
    
    /* the address counter is updated 4us after the busy flag is cleared */
    delay(10);	// mt was 4

    /* now read the address counter */
    return (lcd_read(0));  // return address counter
    
}/* lcd_waitbusy */


/*************************************************************************
Move cursor to the start of next line or to the first line if the cursor 
is already on the last line.
*************************************************************************/
static inline void lcd_newline(uint8_t pos)
{
    register uint8_t addressCounter;


#if LCD_LINES==1
    addressCounter = 0;
#endif
#if LCD_LINES==2
    if ( pos < (LCD_START_LINE2) )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE2;
    else
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE1;
#endif
#if LCD_LINES==4
    if ( pos < LCD_START_LINE3 )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE2;
    else if ( (pos >= LCD_START_LINE2) && (pos < LCD_START_LINE4) )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE3;
    else if ( (pos >= LCD_START_LINE3) && (pos < LCD_START_LINE2) )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE4;
    else { 
		// mtmt added autoscroll
		#ifdef LCD_AUTO_SCROLL
		lcd_scrollup();
		lcd_waitbusy();
		addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE4;
		#else
	    addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE1;
		#endif
	}
#endif
    lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+addressCounter);

}/* lcd_newline */


/*
** PUBLIC FUNCTIONS 
*/

/*************************************************************************
Send LCD controller instruction command
Input:   instruction to send to LCD controller, see HD44780 data sheet
Returns: none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_command(uint8_t cmd)
{
    lcd_waitbusy();
    lcd_write(cmd,0);
}


/*************************************************************************
Set cursor to specified position
Input:    x  horizontal position  (0: left most position)
          y  vertical position    (0: first line)
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_gotoxy(uint8_t x, uint8_t y)
{
#if LCD_LINES==1
    lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1+x);
#endif
#if LCD_LINES==2
    if ( y==0 ) 
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1+x);
    else
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2+x);
#endif
#if LCD_LINES==4
    if ( y==0 )
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1+x);
    else if ( y==1)
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2+x);
    else if ( y==2)
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE3+x);
    else /* y==3 */
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE4+x);
#endif

}/* lcd_gotoxy */


/*************************************************************************
*************************************************************************/
int lcd_getxy(void)
{
    return lcd_waitbusy();
}


/*************************************************************************
Clear display and set cursor to home position
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_clrscr(void)
{
    lcd_command(1<<LCD_CLR);
}


/*************************************************************************
Set cursor to home position
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_home(void)
{
    lcd_command(1<<LCD_HOME);
}

#ifdef LCD_SCROLL_FUNCTION
/*************************************************************************
Scroll up mtmt
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_scrollup(void)
{
	#if LCD_LINES==4
	uint8_t i,c;
	
	for (i=0;i<LCD_DISP_LENGTH;i++) {
		// line 2 to 1
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2+i,0);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		c=lcd_read(1);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1+i,0);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write(c, 1);
		// line 3 to 2
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE3+i,0);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		c=lcd_read(1);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2+i,0);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write(c, 1);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE4+i,0);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		c=lcd_read(1);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE3+i,0);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write(c, 1);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE4+i,0);
		lcd_waitbusy();
		lcd_write(' ', 1);
	}
    #else
	#warning "Scroll up avail. only for 4-line displays"
	#endif	
}
#endif

/*************************************************************************
Display character at current cursor position 
Input:    character to be displayed                                       
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_putc(char c)
{
    uint8_t pos;
	pos = lcd_waitbusy();   // read busy-flag and address counter
    
	if (c=='\n')
    {   
        lcd_newline(pos);
    }
    else
    {
		// mtmt changed order to fix autowrap first write to lcd then 
		// check position
		lcd_write(c, 1);
		pos = lcd_waitbusy();   // read busy-flag and address counter
#if LCD_WRAP_LINES==1
#if LCD_LINES==1
        if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE1+LCD_DISP_LENGTH )
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1,0);
#elif LCD_LINES==2
        if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE1+LCD_DISP_LENGTH )
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2,0);    
        else if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE2+LCD_DISP_LENGTH )
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1,0);
#elif LCD_LINES==4
        if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE1+LCD_DISP_LENGTH )
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2,0);    
		else if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE2+LCD_DISP_LENGTH )
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE3,0);
        else if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE3+LCD_DISP_LENGTH )
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE4,0);
        else if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE4+LCD_DISP_LENGTH ) {
			// mtmt call to autoscroll
			#ifdef LCD_AUTO_SCROLL
			lcd_scrollup();
			lcd_waitbusy();
			lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE4,0);
			#else
			lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1,0);
			#endif
		}
#endif
        lcd_waitbusy();
#endif
        // lcd_write(c, 1);
    }

}/* lcd_putc */


/*************************************************************************
Display string without auto linefeed 
Input:    string to be displayed
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_puts(const char *s)
/* print string on lcd (no auto linefeed) */
{
    register char c;

    while ( (c = *s++) ) {
        lcd_putc(c);
    }

}/* lcd_puts */


/*************************************************************************
Display string from program memory without auto linefeed 
Input:     string from program memory be be displayed                                        
Returns:   none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_puts_p(const char *progmem_s)
/* print string from program memory on lcd (no auto linefeed) */
{
    register char c;

    while ( (c = pgm_read_byte(progmem_s++)) ) {
        lcd_putc(c);
    }

}/* lcd_puts_p */


/*************************************************************************
Initialize display and select type of cursor 
Input:    dispAttr LCD_DISP_OFF            display off
                   LCD_DISP_ON             display on, cursor off
                   LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR      display on, cursor on
                   LCD_DISP_CURSOR_BLINK   display on, cursor on flashing
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_init(uint8_t dispAttr)
{
#if LCD_IO_MODE
    /*
     *  Initialize LCD to 4 bit I/O mode
     */
     
    if ( ( &LCD_DATA0_PORT == &LCD_DATA1_PORT) && ( &LCD_DATA1_PORT == &LCD_DATA2_PORT ) && ( &LCD_DATA2_PORT == &LCD_DATA3_PORT )
      && ( &LCD_RS_PORT == &LCD_DATA0_PORT) && ( &LCD_RW_PORT == &LCD_DATA0_PORT) && (&LCD_E_PORT == &LCD_DATA0_PORT)
      && (LCD_DATA0_PIN == 0 ) && (LCD_DATA1_PIN == 1) && (LCD_DATA2_PIN == 2) && (LCD_DATA3_PIN == 3) 
      && (LCD_RS_PIN == 4 ) && (LCD_RW_PIN == 5) && (LCD_E_PIN == 6 ) )
    {
        /* configure all port bits as output (all LCD lines on same port) */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= 0x7F;
    }
    else if ( ( &LCD_DATA0_PORT == &LCD_DATA1_PORT) && ( &LCD_DATA1_PORT == &LCD_DATA2_PORT ) && ( &LCD_DATA2_PORT == &LCD_DATA3_PORT )
           && (LCD_DATA0_PIN == 0 ) && (LCD_DATA1_PIN == 1) && (LCD_DATA2_PIN == 2) && (LCD_DATA3_PIN == 3) )
    {
        /* configure all port bits as output (all LCD data lines on same port, but control lines on different ports) */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= 0x0F;
        DDR(LCD_RS_PORT)    |= _BV(LCD_RS_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_RW_PORT)    |= _BV(LCD_RW_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_E_PORT)     |= _BV(LCD_E_PIN);
    }
    else
    {
        /* configure all port bits as output (LCD data and control lines on different ports */
        DDR(LCD_RS_PORT)    |= _BV(LCD_RS_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_RW_PORT)    |= _BV(LCD_RW_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_E_PORT)     |= _BV(LCD_E_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA1_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA2_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA3_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
    }
	
    delay(16000);        /* wait 16ms or more after power-on       */
    
    /* initial write to lcd is 8bit */
    LCD_DATA1_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);  // _BV(LCD_FUNCTION)>>4;
    LCD_DATA0_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);  // _BV(LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT)>>4;
    lcd_e_toggle();
    delay(4992);         /* delay, busy flag can't be checked here */
   
    /* repeat last command */ 
    lcd_e_toggle();      
    delay(64);           /* delay, busy flag can't be checked here */
    
    /* repeat last command a third time */
    lcd_e_toggle();      
    delay(64);           /* delay, busy flag can't be checked here */

    /* now configure for 4bit mode */
    LCD_DATA0_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);   // LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_1LINE>>4
    lcd_e_toggle();
    delay(64);           /* some displays need this additional delay */
    
    /* from now the LCD only accepts 4 bit I/O, we can use lcd_command() */    
#else
    /*
     * Initialize LCD to 8 bit memory mapped mode
     */
    
    /* enable external SRAM (memory mapped lcd) and one wait state */        
    MCUCR = _BV(SRE) | _BV(SRW);

    /* reset LCD */
    delay(16000);                           /* wait 16ms after power-on     */
    lcd_write(LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE,0);   /* function set: 8bit interface */                   
    delay(4992);                            /* wait 5ms                     */
    lcd_write(LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE,0);   /* function set: 8bit interface */                 
    delay(64);                              /* wait 64us                    */
    lcd_write(LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE,0);   /* function set: 8bit interface */                
    delay(64);                              /* wait 64us                    */
#endif
    lcd_command(LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT);      /* function set: display lines  */
    lcd_command(LCD_DISP_OFF);              /* display off                  */
    lcd_clrscr();                           /* display clear                */ 
    lcd_command(LCD_MODE_DEFAULT);          /* set entry mode               */
    lcd_command(dispAttr);                  /* display/cursor control       */

}/* lcd_init */

Main Program: ntc-adc.c


/*
ntc-adc.c:
(version 2)

display the temperature on lcd.
choose R1=5K6 other than 10K. Vref=1.1V
it seems suitable for -3 to 100 degree.

see hardware.txt for connection details.
*/

#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>

/* !! F_CPU must be defined BEFORE include delay.h */
/* use mega48 external crystal 8MHz/1=8MHz lfuse=0xe7*/
#define F_CPU 8000000UL
#include <util/delay.h>

#include <math.h>

#include "lcd.h"

#define AVCC_mv 5000.0
#define Vref_mv 1100.0

//#define R1 5600.0
//Infact, This 5K6 resistor is 5520 Ohm.(in approx. 25 degree)
#define R1 5520.0

volatile uint16_t analog_result;
volatile uint8_t analog_busy;

void init_adc_continuous(void)
{
     
  analog_busy = 1;
  /*choose the ADC chanel and standard voltage source*/
  /*use adc4 and internal 1.1v voltage.*/
  ADMUX = ((1<<REFS1)|(1<<REFS0)|0x04);
  
  /*adc control: prescaler, clear ADIF, interrupt enable, etc*/
  /* ADC prescaler: 
     f_adc=f_osc/128=8e6/128 ~= 60KHz
  */
  ADCSRA = ((1<<ADEN)|(1<<ADIF)|(1<<ADIE)|(1<<ADPS2)|(1<<ADPS1)|(1<<ADPS0));

  /*auto trigger enable*/
  ADCSRA |= (1<<ADATE);
  /*
    choose trigger source:
    continuous mode.
    see datasheet p231(Chinese version) for details.
  */
  ADCSRB &= ~((1<<ADTS2)|(1<<ADTS1)|(1<<ADTS0));
    
  /*enable interrupt*/
  sei();

  /*then, ADCSRA |= (1<<ADSC) can start convention.*/
}

ISR (ADC_vect)
{
  uint8_t adlow, adhigh;

  adlow = ADCL;
  adhigh = ADCH;
  analog_result = ((adhigh<<8)|adlow);
  analog_busy = 0;
}

int main (void)
{
  int i;
  double Vin_mv; // save value of V_in
  double r; //save resist of NTC
  double t; //temperature.
  int t_temp; //save temporary t_temp=t*10 for display.
  
  lcd_init(LCD_DISP_ON);
  lcd_clrscr();
  
  init_adc_continuous();
  
  /* start first convertion*/
  ADCSRA |= (1<<ADSC);
  
  lcd_puts("Temperature:\n");
  lcd_gotoxy(5,1);
  lcd_putc(0xDF);
  lcd_gotoxy(6,1);
  lcd_putc('C');
  
  for (;;) {

    /*
      resistance value of NTC:
      r(25)=500 Ohm
      r(t)=r(25)*e^(3300*(1/(t+273)-1/(25+273)))
      etc,
      r(-20)=3.58 KOhm
      r(-3)=1576 KOhm
      r(60)=156 Ohm
      r(100)=54 Ohm
      ...
      if R1=5.6KOhm, then:
      V_in(t)=AVCC*(r(t)/(r(t)+R1))
      etc,
      V_in(-3)=1098 mv
      V_in(100)=47.7 mv
      ...
      
      when V_in is known, 
      r=R1/((AVCC/V_in)-1)
      because of B=3300K, r(25)=500 Ohm:
      t=(1/((ln(r/500)/3300)+(1/(25+273))))-273
    */
    
    Vin_mv = analog_result*(Vref_mv/1024.0);
    
    r=R1/((AVCC_mv/Vin_mv)-1.0);
    
    t=1.0/(log(r/500.0)/3300.0+(1.0/(25.0+273.0))) - 273;
    
    /*
      display xxx.x degree in lcd.
     */
    t_temp=t*10.0;
    
    lcd_gotoxy(0,1);
    lcd_putc(t_temp/1000+'0');
    lcd_gotoxy(1,1);
    lcd_putc((t_temp%1000)/100+'0');
    lcd_gotoxy(2,1);
    lcd_putc((t_temp%100)/10+'0');
    lcd_gotoxy(3,1);
    lcd_putc('.');
    lcd_gotoxy(4,1);
    lcd_putc(t_temp%10+'0');

    for(i=0;i<20;i++)
      _delay_ms(10);
  }
	
}

Makefile


# Hey Emacs, this is a -*- makefile -*-
#
# WinAVR Sample makefile written by Eric B. Weddington, Jörg Wunsch, et al.
# Released to the Public Domain
# Please read the make user manual!
#
# Additional material for this makefile was submitted by:
#  Tim Henigan
#  Peter Fleury
#  Reiner Patommel
#  Sander Pool
#  Frederik Rouleau
#  Markus Pfaff
#
# On command line:
#
# make all = Make software.
#
# make clean = Clean out built project files.
#
# make coff = Convert ELF to AVR COFF (for use with AVR Studio 3.x or VMLAB).
#
# make extcoff = Convert ELF to AVR Extended COFF (for use with AVR Studio
#                4.07 or greater).
#
# make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.  Please
#                customize the avrdude settings below first!
#
# make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler code only
#
# To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".
#


# MCU name
MCU = atmega48

# Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
FORMAT = ihex

# Target file name (without extension).
TARGET = ntc-adc


# List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)
SRC = $(TARGET).c

SRC += lcd.c
# output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
# Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
# it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and gcc itself does
# care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
ASRC = 



# Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s]. 
# 0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
# (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
OPT = s

# Debugging format.
# Native formats for AVR-GCC's -g are stabs [default], or dwarf-2.
# AVR (extended) COFF requires stabs, plus an avr-objcopy run.
DEBUG = stabs

# List any extra directories to look for include files here.
#     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
EXTRAINCDIRS = 


# Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
# c89   - "ANSI" C
# gnu89 - c89 plus GCC extensions
# c99   - ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
# gnu99 - c99 plus GCC extensions
CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99

# Place -D or -U options here
CDEFS =

# Place -I options here
CINCS =


# Compiler flags.
#  -g*:          generate debugging information
#  -O*:          optimization level
#  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:     warning level
#  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
CFLAGS = -g$(DEBUG)
CFLAGS += $(CDEFS) $(CINCS)
CFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
CFLAGS += -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums
CFLAGS += -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes
CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.c=.lst)
CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
CFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)
#link lmath:
CFLAGS += -lm


# Assembler flags.
#  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#  -ahlms:    create listing
#  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note that
#             for use in COFF files, additional information about filenames
#             and function names needs to be present in the assembler source
#             files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described there]
ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs 



#Additional libraries.

# Minimalistic printf version
PRINTF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min

# Floating point printf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt

PRINTF_LIB = 

# Minimalistic scanf version
SCANF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min

# Floating point + %[ scanf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
SCANF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt

SCANF_LIB = 

MATH_LIB = -lm

# External memory options

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# used for variables (.data/.bss) and heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,-Tdata=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# only used for heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

EXTMEMOPTS =

# Linker flags.
#  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
#    -Map:      create map file
#    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)




# Programming support using avrdude. Settings and variables.

# Programming hardware: alf avr910 avrisp bascom bsd 
# dt006 pavr picoweb pony-stk200 sp12 stk200 stk500
#
# Type: avrdude -c ?
# to get a full listing.
#
#AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = stk500
AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = stk500v2

# com1 = serial port. Use lpt1 to connect to parallel port.
AVRDUDE_PORT = /dev/ttyUSB0    # programmer connected to serial device

AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep


# Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
# Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
# see avrdude manual.
#AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER = -y

# Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
# performed after programming the device.
#AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY = -V

# Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
# reports about avrdude. See <http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude> 
# to submit bug reports.
#AVRDUDE_VERBOSE = -v -v

AVRDUDE_FLAGS = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_VERBOSE)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER)



# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Define directories, if needed.
DIRAVR = c:/winavr
DIRAVRBIN = $(DIRAVR)/bin
DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin
DIRINC = .
DIRLIB = $(DIRAVR)/avr/lib


# Define programs and commands.
SHELL = sh
CC = avr-gcc
OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
SIZE = avr-size
NM = avr-nm
AVRDUDE = avrdude
REMOVE = rm -f
COPY = cp




# Define Messages
# English
MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
MSG_END = --------  end  --------
MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before: 
MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
MSG_LINKING = Linking:
MSG_COMPILING = Compiling:
MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:




# Define all object files.
OBJ = $(SRC:.c=.o) $(ASRC:.S=.o) 

# Define all listing files.
LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst)


# Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
GENDEPFLAGS = -Wp,-M,-MP,-MT,$(*F).o,-MF,.dep/$(@F).d


# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)





# Default target.
all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter finished end

build: elf hex eep lss sym

elf: $(TARGET).elf
hex: $(TARGET).hex
eep: $(TARGET).eep
lss: $(TARGET).lss 
sym: $(TARGET).sym



# Eye candy.
# AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
# the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.
begin:
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_BEGIN)

finished:
	@echo $(MSG_ERRORS_NONE)

end:
	@echo $(MSG_END)
	@echo


# Display size of file.
HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
sizebefore:
	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi

sizeafter:
	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi



# Display compiler version information.
gccversion : 
	@$(CC) --version



# Program the device.  
program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
	$(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM)




# Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in AVR Studio or VMLAB.
COFFCONVERT=$(OBJCOPY) --debugging \
--change-section-address .data-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .bss-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .noinit-0x800000 \
--change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000 


coff: $(TARGET).elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof


extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof



# Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
%.hex: %.elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
	$(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@

%.eep: %.elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
	-$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
	--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@

# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
%.lss: %.elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
	$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@

# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
%.sym: %.elf
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
	$(NM) -n $< > $@



# Link: create ELF output file from object files.
.SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
.PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
%.elf: $(OBJ)
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
	$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(OBJ) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)


# Compile: create object files from C source files.
%.o : %.c
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@ 


# Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
%.s : %.c
	$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
%.o : %.S
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@



# Target: clean project.
clean: begin clean_list finished end

clean_list :
	@echo
	@echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).a90
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lnk
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
	$(REMOVE) $(OBJ)
	$(REMOVE) $(LST)
	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
	$(REMOVE) .dep/*



# Include the dependency files.
-include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)


# Listing of phony targets.
.PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
build elf hex eep lss sym coff extcoff \
clean clean_list program



sun ge 2007-10-24